While the question is short and to the point, in truth its answer is rather complex. Probably the best annotated work which describes the differences between Judaism and Christianity is Rabbi Milton Steinberg’s work Basic Judaism, available in paperback.
The essential difference between Jews and Christians is that Christians accept Jesus as messiah and personal savior. Jesus is not part of Jewish theology. Amongst Jews, Jesus is not considered a divine being.
Therefore all holidays that have a connection to the life of Jesus are not part of Jewish life and/or practice (Christmas, Easter, Lent, Advent, Palm Sunday, etc.).
Judaism originates as a result of the covenantal relationship between God and Abraham. The Bible (Hebrew Bible which doesn’t include New Testament for reasons stated previously) is our sacred literature.
The relationship between the Jewish people and God is documented in the text. In the Bible, the history, culture, language, theology, and practices of the Jewish people are presented.
The Old Testament is the first division of the Christian Bible. It is a collection of books which varies from church to church and dates earlier than the New Testament. The Old Testament contains a vocabulary of 5,800 words.
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian Bible. It is also known as the New Law or New Covenant. The New Testament contains a vocabulary of 4,800 words.
The New Testament focuses more on the life and teachings of Jesus and the Christian church, while The Old Testament explains the history of the creation of the World, the exodus of Israelite’s, and the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God.
The Old Testament is the first division of the Christian Bible and was written in Hebrew and Aramaic. The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian Bible, written in the Greek language.
The Old Testament is the first division and the only source for the history of Israel and Judah, the earliest material dates back to 12th century BC. The Old Testament is similar to the Hebrew Bible and varies primarily in the order of books.
In the Old Testament the Book of Malachi is placed last whereas in the Hebrew Bible the Book of Chronicles comes last. The Greek translation of the Bible, known as Septuagint, forms the basis of the Orthodox churches as well as Eastern Old Testament.
The Latin translation of the Septuagint known as the Vetus Latina originally formed the basis of the Old Testaments in the Western churches, and was later replaced by Jerome’s Vulgate. Protestant churches follow the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.
The first record of the New Testament – Ryland Library Papyrus P52, is found dated between 117 and 138 A.D. The original texts have been written by various authors in Koine Greek.
Later these books were made into a single volume and consist of a twenty-seven book canon or set. The contents and order of books of the Old Testament varies in different churches.
The Orthodox communion has 51 books and the Protestant communion has 39 books. The books include the Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus and Peshitta. There are books of poetry, thanksgiving, wisdom proverbs and prophets.
The New testament may contain additional books such as Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus Seirach, Baruch to name a few, and also some additions to other sections of the Bible.
The New Testament contains the gospels, which are the four narratives of Jesus’ life and death, narratives of the Apostles‘ ministries, epistles which are twenty one early letters written by different authors, and an Apocalyptic Prophecy.
These books focus on the life of Christ, his teachings and also a book of prophecy that predicts the end of time. Basically good people build relations on similarities, while bad people judge on differences.
The Old Testament provides the basis of the present day Judeo-Christian faith. It talks about the history of how the world was created, exodus of Israelite’s, and the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God, and also includes real life stories.
The function of this text is to teach people through the experiences of people throughout history. Several books also foretell the arrival of the Messiah and the end of the world.
Existing in Israel for 1500 years, but the Romans in 70 AD kicked all Jews out. Jews are dispersed all over the world, at one time present in almost every country. Now the majority live in Israel, USA, Canada, Russia, France, England and control all the banks.
The New Testament, on the other hand, focuses more on the life and teachings of Jesus and the Christian church. The stories are narrated through gospels and emphasize the importance of the sacrifice of Jesus.
The function of the New Testament is to lead people to follow the example of Jesus more closely. The other books, written by various authors also talk about the end of the world and last battle between good and evil.
As the largest religion in the world, Christianity has adherents are all over the world. As a % of local population, Christians are in a majority in Europe, North and South America, and Australia and New Zealand.
Judaism was created by Abraham 2000 BCE and his descendants of Issac and Jacob. The Law: the 10 Commandments was given to Moses (and 600 000 Jews who left Egyptian slavery) in c, 1300 BCE to return to Israel and follow God’s will.
Hebrew. Every word has a 3 letter root word. Yiddish: part Hebrew, part German/East European language. Sephardic: part Hebrew, part Arabic language.
Christianity broadly consists of individuals who believe in the deity Jesus Christ. Its followers, called Christians, often believe Christ is “the Son” of the Holy Trinity and walked the earth as the incarnate form of God (“the Father”).
Diffen.com / ABC Flash Point Religion News 2022.